Unknown“Making war not only unthinkable, but technically unfeasible”. Robert Schuman, 9 May 1950.

Founding countries: France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg


1951: European Steel & Coal Community

1957: European Economic Community (“Common Market”)

Freedom of movement for people, goods, services and capital

Free and non distorted competition (no dominant positions, no cartels, no state aid)

1962: Common Agricultural Policy

1968: Customs Union

1973: Enlargement to United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark

1974: Regional Policy

1981: Enlargement to Greece

1985: Schengen Area

1986: Single Market (open in 1993)

1986: Enlargement to Spain and Portugal

1990: Schengen Area enlarged

1992: European Union

New competences of the EU regarding social affairs, the environment, consumer protection, Trans-European networks, health, research…

European Parliament’s new decision-making powers

Common Foreign Affairs & Security Policy

European Citizenship

1995: Enlargement to Finland, Sweden and Austria

1997: European Area for Freedom, Security & Justice

1999: Economic & Monetary Union (EMU)

1999: Rural Development Policy

2001: Charter of Fundamental Rights (binding in 2007)

2004: Enlargement to Poland, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus, and Malta

2007: Enlargement to Romania and Bulgaria

2007: Co decision is the ordinary legislative procedure

2007: New comitology – Implementing Acts, Delegated Acts

2007: European Citizens’ Initiatives

2008: Transparency Register of representatives of interests

2011: European External Action Service

2012: Stability, Coordination and Governance of the Economic & Monetary Union

2013: Enlargement to Croatia

2017: Defence Union

2020 : The United Kingdom leaves